For Object Showing
a. For inanimate – Kore, Sore, Are, Dore
Kore – here and this (closer to speaker)
sore – that and there
are – that over there
Dore – which of these 2-3
b. For inanimate and animate with name (noun) –
Kono – this thing – Kono tokei wa desu ka – is this watch
Sono – that thing
Ano – That thing. (over there, with neither of us)
Dono – what thing?
For location/ direction
ここ koko: here
そこ soko: there
あそこ asoko: over there
どこ doko: Where
こちら kochira: This side. My side. This way.
そちら sochira: That side. Your side.That way.
あちら achira: That side over there. His side. That way over there.
どちら dochira: What side? Whose side? What way?
kon’na こんな : Like this thing. Such as this thing.
The way I’m talking about.
son’na そんな : Like that thing. Such as that thing.
The way you’re talking about.
an’na あんな: Like that thing over there.
The way neither of us have anything to do with.
don’na どんな: Like what? Such as what thing?
Dare – who
Dare no – who’s
Ikura – how much ==> ikura desu ka – how much is it for?
1. wa (am , is, are) – watashi wa (i am ) sandesh wa engineer desu >>>> sandesh is an engineer
2. no (of)- watashi no – (my), watashi no friend no kaban desu >>>> my friends bag
3. Mo (too, Also, even) – watashi mo >>>> I am too/also
4. Ne – isn’t it, right, don’t you agree – Roku-ji desu ne >>>> isn’t it 6 o’clock
5. e (to) – motion verb/motion in the certain direction (to) (….. la)
ikimasu – to go
kimasu – to come
kaerimasu – to return
ikimasho – let’s go
ikimasho ka – shall we go?
watashi wa kaisha e ikimasu >>>> I am going to office
6. de – use for transport (by) / (in) (…. ni) ( http://www.punipunijapan.com/japanese-particle-de/ )
The Japanese particle で (de) is used to indicate the place at which an action or event takes place. It is translated as “at,” “in,” or “on” in English. The particleで comes after the place (noun) and before the action (verb) in the sentence.
Toshokan de benkyō shimashita.
I studied at the library.
Basu de ikimasu >>>> Going by bus
de – with
7. ni – inside, at, on – used with time expression when time is with digit
Watashi wa 6 ji ni okimasu >>>> I get up at 6 o’clock
8. O – The Particle O indicates the object of an action
9. ga (but)
Sumimasen desu ga …. >> I am sorry but … next sentence
10. ga (there)
12. to (with)
13. Demo (but) (use for contradiction for similar kind of things )
14. Nan / Nani
15. Nani mo
Verb always be negative
16. Dare / Donata (who)
1. So desu ka – “I see”
2. Hai, so desu – “Yes, correct”
3. Ima – “Now at present” “at this moment”
4. ji – “time” “o’clock” ex. Ima nan ji desu ka – what time is it now? Roku-ji – 6 o’clock
5. gozen – (AM) gogo – (PM) Ima gogo ni-ji desu – It is 2:00 P.M. now
6. chigaimasu – it is different (than what are you saying) – Iie, Chigaimasu.
7. Shitsurei desu ga – sorry for asking – ex. Shitsurei desu ga, o-namae wa nan desu ka – sorry for asking but, what is your name?
Types of verbs :
Ikimasu – to go – present/future affirmative
Ikimasen – not go – present/future negative
Ikimashita – was went – past affirmative
Ikimasen deshita – was not went – past negative
Ikimasho – let’s go
Ikimashoka – shall we go?
Plain verb types
Group 1 – ending with u ex.
Group 2 – ending with iru/eru ex.
Group 3 – kuru/suru
Verbs in plane Past form
Group 1 – tta
Group 2 – ta
Verbs in plane negative form
Masen => anai
V+ masen ka – won’t?
Verb’s tai form (want)
nani o tabetai desu ka ==> what do you want to eat?
ikimasu – ikitai
nomimasu – nomitai
yomimasu – yomitai
1. Kudasai –
o kudasai – “Please give me” or “I will buy it” – Ringo o kudasai (please give me an apple)
te + kudasai – for request
2. Vte + imasu – to show action in progress
cake tabe imasu – (i) eat a cake
cake tabete imasu – (i) am eating cake
3. Vte + mite kudasai
4. Vte + Vte form
5. Vte + もいいですか (mo ii desu ka) – May I…
隣に座ってもいいですか。(Tonari ni suwatte mo ii desu ka?) – “May I sit next to you?”
6. V + masho – let’s do
General word formation
1. Place Kara (from)
2. X desu ka, Y desu ka (OR, either)
3. Senmon (specialization)
==> senmon wa nan desu ka — what is your specialization?
4. Sai / o-ikutsu (age)
5. Imi (Meaning)
==> Sumimasen, imi wa nan desu ka – Excuse me, what is the meaning?
6. Soshite – and
7. To – and