For Object Showing
a. For inanimate – Kore, Sore, Are, Dore
Kore – here and this (closer to speaker)
sore – that and there
are – that over there
Dore – which of these 2-3
b. For inanimate and animate with name (noun) –
Kono – this thing – Kono tokei wa desu ka – is this watch
Sono – that thing
Ano – That thing. (over there, with neither of us)
Dono – what thing?
For location/ direction
ここ koko: here
そこ soko: there
あそこ asoko: over there
どこ doko: Where
こちら kochira: This side. My side. This way.
そちら sochira: That side. Your side.That way.
あちら achira: That side over there. His side. That way over there.
どちら dochira: What side? Whose side? What way?
kon’na こんな : Like this thing. Such as this thing.
The way I’m talking about.
son’na そんな : Like that thing. Such as that thing.
The way you’re talking about.
an’na あんな: Like that thing over there.
The way neither of us have anything to do with.
don’na どんな: Like what? Such as what thing?
Dare – who
Dare no – who’s
Ikura – how much
1. wa (am , is, are) – watashi wa (i am ) sandesh wa engineer desu >>>> sandesh is an engineer
2. no (of)- watashi no – (my), watashi no friend no kaban desu >>>> my friends bag
3. Mo (too, Also) – watashi mo >>>> I am too/also
4. Ne – isn’t it, right, don’t you agree – Roku-ji desu ne >>>> isn’t it 6 o’clock
5. e – motion verb/motion in the certain direction (to) (….. la)
ikimasu – to go
kimasu – to come
kaerimasu – to return
ikimasho – let’s go
ikimasho ka – shall we go?
watashi wa kaisha e ikimasu >>>> I am going to office
6. de – use for transport (by) / (in) (…. ni)
Basu de ikimasu >>>> Going by bus
Kore wa Nihon-go nan desu ka >> what is this in Japanese
7. ni – inside, at, on – used with time expression when time is with digit
Watashi wa 6 ji ni okimasu >>>> I get up at 6 o’clock
8. O – The Particle O indicates the object of an action
9. ga (but)
Sumimasen desu ga …. >> I am sorry but … next sentence
10. ga (there)
12. to (with)
13. Demo (but) (use for contradiction for similar kind of things )
14. Nani mo
Verb always be negative
1. So desu ka – “I see”
2. Hai, so desu – “Yes, correct”
3. Ima – “Now at present” “at this moment”
4. ji – “time” “o’clock” ex. Ima nan ji desu ka – what time is it now? Roku-ji – 6 o’clock
5. gozen – (AM) gogo – (PM) Ima gogo ni-ji desu – It is 2:00 P.M. now
6. chigaimasu – it is different (than what are you saying) – Iie, Chigaimasu.
Types of verbs :
Ikimasu – to go – present/future affirmative
Ikimasen – not go – present/future negative
Ikimashita – was went – past affirmative
Ikimasen deshita – was not went – past negative
Ikimasho – let’s go
Ikimashoka – shall we go?
Plain verb types
Group 1 – ending with u ex.
Group 2 – ending with iru/eru ex.
Group 3 – kuru/suru
Verbs in plane Past form
Group 1 – tta
Group 2 – ta
Verbs in plane negative form
masen => anai
Verb’s tai form (want)
nani o tabetai desu ka ==> what do you want to eat?
ikimasu – ikitai
nomimasu – nomitai
yomimasu – yomitai
o kudasai – “Please give me” or “I will buy it” – Ringo o kudasai (please give me an apple)
te + kudasai – for request
te + imasu – to show action in progress
te + mite kudasai