0E3EA423-E731-4D66-9A42-E9B1BFA1F942For Object Showing

a.  For inanimate – Kore, Sore, Are, Dore

Kore – here and this (closer to speaker)
sore – that and there
are – that over there
Dore – which of these 2-3

b. For inanimate and animate with name (noun) – 

Kono –  this thing – Kono tokei wa desu ka – is this watch
Sono – that thing
Ano – That thing. (over there, with neither of us)
Dono – what thing?

For location/ direction

ここ koko: here
そこ soko: there
あそこ asoko: over there
どこ  doko: Where

こちら kochira: This side. My side. This way.
そちら sochira: That side. Your side.That way.
あちら achira: That side over there. His side. That way over there.
どちら dochira: What side? Whose side? What way?

kon’na こんな : Like this thing. Such as this thing.
The way I’m talking about.
son’na そんな : Like that thing. Such as that thing.
The way you’re talking about.
an’na あんな: Like that thing over there.
The way neither of us have anything to do with.
don’na どんな: Like what? Such as what thing?

064BDD8F-68AB-495C-835B-3D4D918278E1

Interrogation   

Dare – who
Dare no – who’s
Ikura – how much

Partical – 

1. wa (am , is,  are) – watashi wa (i am ) sandesh wa engineer desu  >>>> sandesh is an engineer

2. no (of)- watashi no – (my),     watashi no friend no kaban desu  >>>> my friends bag

3. Mo (too, Also) – watashi mo >>>> I am too/also

4. Ne – isn’t it, right, don’t you agree – Roku-ji desu ne >>>> isn’t it 6 o’clock

5. e (to) –  motion verb/motion in the certain direction (to)     (….. la)
ikimasu – to go
kimasu – to come
kaerimasu – to return
ikimasho – let’s go
ikimasho ka – shall we go?
watashi wa kaisha e ikimasu >>>> I am going to office

6. de – use for transport (by) / (in)   (…. ni)  ( http://www.punipunijapan.com/japanese-particle-de/ )

The Japanese particle で (de) is used to indicate the place at which an action or event takes place. It is translated as “at,” “in,” or “on” in English. The particleで comes after the place (noun) and before the action (verb) in the sentence.

Toshokan de benkyō shimashita.
I studied at the library.

Basu de ikimasu >>>> Going by bus

A73A2D48-E549-47C7-9CB2-F901D469BADC

7. ni – inside, at, on – used with time expression when time is with digit

Watashi wa 6 ji ni okimasu >>>> I get up at 6 o’clock

9FFF09FA-9894-433D-AF93-466D23839BF1

59858C5D-15DB-4381-BAE2-74088F5B5169

8. O – The Particle O indicates the object of an action 

735D86C0-8368-4251-8173-84ECAC17E08A.png

9. ga (but)

Sumimasen desu ga …. >> I am sorry but … next sentence

10. ga (there)

ACC499AD-32D5-4275-A831-1CAE8D4D1D49

11. Yo

D1CAE337-35E4-4149-BA6E-2ACC272C9B7A

12. to (with)

D510F5D3-80AB-437A-9768-09C06C361A70

13. Demo (but)  (use for contradiction for similar kind of things )

5A67815B-6EC5-425E-8D4D-6D38B655C7D1

14. Nani mo

Verb always be negative

7D0F6B64-C92E-4F77-8B2D-2E68F9226BE6

General words 

1.  So desu ka – “I see”

2. Hai, so desu – “Yes, correct”

3. Ima – “Now at present” “at this moment”

4. ji – “time” “o’clock”  ex. Ima nan ji desu ka – what time is it now?   Roku-ji – 6 o’clock

5. gozen – (AM)    gogo – (PM)   Ima gogo ni-ji desu – It is 2:00 P.M. now

6. chigaimasu –  it is different (than what are you saying) – Iie, Chigaimasu.

Types of verbs :

Ikimasu – to go   – present/future affirmative
Ikimasennot go – present/future negative
Ikimashitawas went – past affirmative
Ikimasen deshitawas not went – past negative
Ikimasholet’s go
Ikimashokashall we go?

Plain verb types

Group 1 – ending with u ex.
Group 2 – ending with iru/eru ex.
Group 3 – kuru/suru
CD9B545B-6609-4A95-BF67-FB156576AC0A

Verbs in plane Past form
Group 1 – tta
Group 2 – ta

D9C7BA17-861D-4E99-8C5B-856C61FDC950

Verbs in plane negative form

masen => anai

589AEC21-866B-4D55-A387-C4A85ED48612

Verb’s tai form (want)
nani o tabetai desu ka ==> what do you want to eat?
ikimasu – ikitai
nomimasu – nomitai
yomimasu – yomitai

Give/Receive 

Agemasu/ageru/agemashita/agemasen/

7A2D29B0-60FF-437F-8613-BC301C5B7074

Te form

Kudasai

o kudasai – “Please give me” or “I will buy it” – Ringo o kudasai (please give me an apple)

te + kudasai – for request

A5E3620C-9DF3-432D-9586-CB0D38EE6D66

Vte + imasu – to show action in progress

cake tabe imasu – (i) eat a cake
cake tabete imasu – (i) am eating cake

C48B0ED5-FA6B-40C2-A76D-6E724E1C6FE6

8F5612FE-36A7-4EB1-BD4F-69BF126F4A6C

te + mite kudasai

Vte + Vte form

2F03A06D-AB65-421D-976C-6254AFD9B3E6

D9077E2B-289C-4618-BA6F-8BA34780166E

Advertisements