0E3EA423-E731-4D66-9A42-E9B1BFA1F942For Object Showing

a.  For inanimate – Kore, Sore, Are, Dore

Kore – here and this (closer to speaker)
sore – that and there
are – that over there
Dore – which of these 2-3

b. For inanimate and animate with name (noun) – 

Kono –  this thing – Kono tokei wa desu ka – is this watch
Sono – that thing
Ano – That thing. (over there, with neither of us)
Dono – what thing?

For location/ direction

ここ koko: here
そこ soko: there
あそこ asoko: over there
どこ  doko: Where

こちら kochira: This side. My side. This way.
そちら sochira: That side. Your side.That way.
あちら achira: That side over there. His side. That way over there.
どちら dochira: What side? Whose side? What way?

kon’na こんな : Like this thing. Such as this thing.
The way I’m talking about.
son’na そんな : Like that thing. Such as that thing.
The way you’re talking about.
an’na あんな: Like that thing over there.
The way neither of us have anything to do with.
don’na どんな: Like what? Such as what thing?



Dare – who
Dare no – who’s
Ikura – how much

Partical – 

1. wa (am , is,  are) – watashi wa (i am ) sandesh wa engineer desu  >>>> sandesh is an engineer

2. no (of)- watashi no – (my),     watashi no friend no kaban desu  >>>> my friends bag

3. Mo (too, Also) – watashi mo >>>> I am too/also

4. Ne – isn’t it, right, don’t you agree – Roku-ji desu ne >>>> isn’t it 6 o’clock

5. e –  motion verb/motion in the certain direction (to)     (….. la)
ikimasu – to go
kimasu – to come
kaerimasu – to return
ikimasho – let’s go
ikimasho ka – shall we go?
watashi wa kaisha e ikimasu >>>> I am going to office

6. de – use for transport (by) / (in)   (…. ni)
Basu de ikimasu >>>> Going by bus
Kore wa Nihon-go nan desu ka >> what is this in Japanese


7. ni – inside, at, on – used with time expression when time is with digit

Watashi wa 6 ji ni okimasu >>>> I get up at 6 o’clock



8. O – The Particle O indicates the object of an action 


9. ga (but)

Sumimasen desu ga …. >> I am sorry but … next sentence

10. ga (there)


11. Yo


12. to (with)


13. Demo (but)  (use for contradiction for similar kind of things )


14. Nani mo

Verb always be negative


General words 

1.  So desu ka – “I see”

2. Hai, so desu – “Yes, correct”

3. Ima – “Now at present” “at this moment”

4. ji – “time” “o’clock”  ex. Ima nan ji desu ka – what time is it now?   Roku-ji – 6 o’clock

5. gozen – (AM)    gogo – (PM)   Ima gogo ni-ji desu – It is 2:00 P.M. now

6. chigaimasu –  it is different (than what are you saying) – Iie, Chigaimasu.

Types of verbs :

Ikimasu – to go   – present/future affirmative
Ikimasennot go – present/future negative
Ikimashitawas went – past affirmative
Ikimasen deshitawas not went – past negative
Ikimasholet’s go
Ikimashokashall we go?

Plain verb types

Group 1 – ending with u ex.
Group 2 – ending with iru/eru ex.
Group 3 – kuru/suru

Verbs in plane Past form
Group 1 – tta
Group 2 – ta


Verbs in plane negative form

masen => anai


Verb’s tai form (want)
nani o tabetai desu ka ==> what do you want to eat?
ikimasu – ikitai
nomimasu – nomitai
yomimasu – yomitai




Te form


o kudasai – “Please give me” or “I will buy it” – Ringo o kudasai (please give me an apple)

te + kudasai – for request


te + imasu – to show action in progress


te + mite kudasai