0E3EA423-E731-4D66-9A42-E9B1BFA1F942For Object Showing

a.  For inanimate – Kore, Sore, Are, Dore

Kore – here and this (closer to speaker)
sore – that and there
are – that over there
Dore – which of these 2-3

b. For inanimate and animate with name (noun) – 

Kono –  this thing – Kono tokei wa desu ka – is this watch
Sono – that thing
Ano – That thing. (over there, with neither of us)
Dono – what thing?

For location/ direction

ここ koko: here
そこ soko: there
あそこ asoko: over there
どこ  doko: Where

こちら kochira: This side. My side. This way.
そちら sochira: That side. Your side.That way.
あちら achira: That side over there. His side. That way over there.
どちら dochira: What side? Whose side? What way?

kon’na こんな : Like this thing. Such as this thing.
The way I’m talking about.
son’na そんな : Like that thing. Such as that thing.
The way you’re talking about.
an’na あんな: Like that thing over there.
The way neither of us have anything to do with.
don’na どんな: Like what? Such as what thing?



Dare – who
Dare no – who’s
Ikura – how much

Partical – 

1. wa (am , is,  are) – watashi wa (i am ) sandesh wa engineer desu  >>>> sandesh is an engineer

2. no (of)- watashi no – (my),     watashi no friend no kaban desu  >>>> my friends bag

3. Mo (too, Also) – watashi mo >>>> I am too/also

4. Ne – isn’t it, right, don’t you agree – Roku-ji desu ne >>>> isn’t it 6 o’clock

5. e (to) –  motion verb/motion in the certain direction (to)     (….. la)
ikimasu – to go
kimasu – to come
kaerimasu – to return
ikimasho – let’s go
ikimasho ka – shall we go?
watashi wa kaisha e ikimasu >>>> I am going to office

6. de – use for transport (by) / (in)   (…. ni)  ( http://www.punipunijapan.com/japanese-particle-de/ )

The Japanese particle で (de) is used to indicate the place at which an action or event takes place. It is translated as “at,” “in,” or “on” in English. The particleで comes after the place (noun) and before the action (verb) in the sentence.

Toshokan de benkyō shimashita.
I studied at the library.

Basu de ikimasu >>>> Going by bus


7. ni – inside, at, on – used with time expression when time is with digit

Watashi wa 6 ji ni okimasu >>>> I get up at 6 o’clock



8. O – The Particle O indicates the object of an action 


9. ga (but)

Sumimasen desu ga …. >> I am sorry but … next sentence

10. ga (there)


11. Yo


12. to (with)


13. Demo (but)  (use for contradiction for similar kind of things )


14. Nani mo

Verb always be negative


General words 

1.  So desu ka – “I see”

2. Hai, so desu – “Yes, correct”

3. Ima – “Now at present” “at this moment”

4. ji – “time” “o’clock”  ex. Ima nan ji desu ka – what time is it now?   Roku-ji – 6 o’clock

5. gozen – (AM)    gogo – (PM)   Ima gogo ni-ji desu – It is 2:00 P.M. now

6. chigaimasu –  it is different (than what are you saying) – Iie, Chigaimasu.

Types of verbs :

Ikimasu – to go   – present/future affirmative
Ikimasennot go – present/future negative
Ikimashitawas went – past affirmative
Ikimasen deshitawas not went – past negative
Ikimasholet’s go
Ikimashokashall we go?

Plain verb types

Group 1 – ending with u ex.
Group 2 – ending with iru/eru ex.
Group 3 – kuru/suru

Verbs in plane Past form
Group 1 – tta
Group 2 – ta


Verbs in plane negative form

masen => anai


Verb’s tai form (want)
nani o tabetai desu ka ==> what do you want to eat?
ikimasu – ikitai
nomimasu – nomitai
yomimasu – yomitai




Te form

1. Kudasai

o kudasai – “Please give me” or “I will buy it” – Ringo o kudasai (please give me an apple)

te + kudasai – for request


2. Vte + imasu – to show action in progress

cake tabe imasu – (i) eat a cake
cake tabete imasu – (i) am eating cake



3. Vte + mite kudasai

4. Vte + Vte form



5. Vte  + もいいですか (mo ii desu ka)  – May I…

隣に座ってもいいですか。(Tonari ni suwatte mo ii desu ka?)  – “May I sit next to you?”